BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation) HomepageBEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation) Homepage
Below Absolute Zero -- What Does Negative Temperature Mean?Below Absolute Zero -- What Does Negative Temperature Mean?
|"A new form of matter at the coldest temperatures in the universe." Simplified, surprisingly clear explanation. Includes cartoon illustrations.|
Bose Einstein Condensation at NISTBose Einstein Condensation at NIST
|Can you really make a system which has a temperature below absolute zero? From the Usenet Physics FAQ.|
ColdQuanta, Inc.ColdQuanta, Inc.
|Several research groups in the Physics Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are working on different aspects of BEC and the physics of ultracold quantum gases.|
Computer Simulation of Laser Cooling and TrappingComputer Simulation of Laser Cooling and Trapping
|A developer and supplier of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and cold atom devices, instruments and systems.|
NIST - Atomic Physics Division - Laser Cooling and Trapping GroupNIST - Atomic Physics Division - Laser Cooling and Trapping Group
|Download page for free copies of several "Cool Simulations."|
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
|This department of the National Institute of Standards and Technology studies the physics of laser cooling, electromagnetic trapping, and other radiative manipulation of neutral atoms and dielectric particles. Home of 1997 Nobel Prize winner William D. Phillips, whose team has cooled atoms to less than a millionth of a degree above absolute zero.|
Research Groups Involved in Atom Trapping and CoolingResearch Groups Involved in Atom Trapping and Cooling
|This includes the press release of the Nobel Committee for the prize given to Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William D. Phillips, for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. For those wanting more scientific details, be sure to click the link for "Additional background material" under "Further Reading."|
Steven ChuSteven Chu
|A detailed links list of about 50 research groups around the world, with an immense list of subject links, as well. From the Laser Physics Group at Umeå University, Sweden.|
USC Physics & Astronomy: Physics 151 Lab ManualUSC Physics & Astronomy: Physics 151 Lab Manual
|Using lasers to trap and cool molecules for study. Nobel Prize for Chu, Phillips, and Cohen-Tannoudji.|
What is Absolute Zero?What is Absolute Zero?
|Click on: "Experiment X: Ideal Gas Law and the Absolute Zero of Temperature." Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader. The experiment uses liquid nitrogen.|
Cornell and Wieman Share 2001 Nobel Prize in PhysicsCornell and Wieman Share 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics
|An answer from the Lansing State Journal in Michigan, January 29, 1992. |
|Press releases from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and explanations of the work on Bose-Einstein condensates which won the Nobel Prize. (October 9, 2001)|